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Sep. 20, 2020
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Curb Appeal

Oh, deer! So cute, but they're pests in the garden

Mama deer with their baby spotted fawns are so cute in the wild. They’re especially prolific around Lake Lanier, where acres and acres of forested land make perfect year-round shelter. You can’t help but go “Aw,” when you see them grazing on the side of the road near dusk or wandering the woods in the early mornings. 
What we tend to forget is that they were here first. All our development of subdivisions, commercial growth and retail has taken over much of their home territory. Who can blame them for seeking out easy pickings in home landscapes for food and nourishment?
I have a good friend who walks a lakeside marina every afternoon. She and her walking buddy bring apples and carrots and the deer have spread the word. Each afternoon a mini-herd of mamas and babies meets them along their customary path. The deer are smart; they know where their good food is coming from. 
Yes, it’s sweet, but if you’re a gardener, you may see the deer from a different viewpoint.
Garden browsers beware
Deer have to eat – don’t we all? – and your vegetable garden, hydrangeas, hostas, fruit trees, daylilies and roses are a veritable smorgasbord for these sweet creatures. Indian hawthorns, popular with residential builders as foundation plantings, are also prime pickings for deer. This fall and winter, expect your pansies to attract deer, who indiscriminately pull up plants and drag them across your yard.
However, you can protect your landscape without hurting Bambi and his mom. The folks at Pike Nurseries recently sent out a news release about deer-resistant plants and ways to keep deer on their side of the fence. Here are their tips:
Choose plants that are more deer resistant, such as ornamental grasses, coneflowers, boxwood, plus herbs like lavender, rosemary and thyme. Daffodils are a good choice for spring color because deer won’t eat them. Deer love daylilies, but it turns out that plant breeders have created deer-resistant Stella d’Ora daylilies, so plant this variety instead of more showy daylilies. 
Create a natural boundary around your deer favorites by planting less favorable landscape materials around them. This will create a bit of protection for existing flower beds and plantings.
If you must use a repellant, use an all-natural product, such as Go Away! Deer and Rabbit Repellent spray made with hot-pepper extract, or Milorganite organic fertilizer. These smells and tastes will help keep deer at bay.  Other products like Liquid Fence, Bobbex and Hinder work well, but they are really smelly and must be applied every 10 days to two weeks.
Do fence them out
Deer can jump and even a tall fence won’t completely deter them, especially if your gates are shorter than the fence.
I’ve surrounded my hybrid rose gardens with a very low-voltage electric fence. It’s not pretty but it works, let me tell you. I’ve bumped into it from time to time and gotten a little tingle, but it has certainly protected my hybrid teas. Rick built an 8-foot fence around and vegetable/fruit patches with tall fences and topped it with dangling flagging tape. So far, so good. 
Sometimes it’s best to give in 
If you are still plagued by hungry deer, remember this: No plant is completely deer-proof. If they’re hungry enough, they will eat anything. 
Even if you do everything in your power to keep the deer away, realize you’re outnumbered. The deer were here first and they sort of have the right of way.

Pamela A. Keene is our senior staff writer and a Hall County Master Gardener.

August 2020 column


Hydrangeas: I'd rather be pink

Last month was all about blueberries, but now they’re gone until next season. We netted more than 100 pounds from our 12 bushes. Soon it will be time to prune, but not until fall. 
As the summer progresses, hydrangeas take center stage. With nearly a half-dozen varieties that grow well in North Georgia, it’s hard to pick a favorite. From the large white blooms of Annabelle to the distinctive Oak Leaf with cone-shaped bloom heads, the changeable pink, lavender, purple or blue Mopheads, and sun-loving Panicles, you can fill your yard from shade areas to full sun with a full summer of flowering.
Their wide range of colors is generally determined by the PH of the soil. If it’s acidic, meaning the PH is low as much of our Georgia clay, you’re likely to have blue flowers. By adding lime for the garden to be more alkaline, your blue mopheads will gradually produce pink blooms. First, they’ll move to lavenders and purples, then eventually – and I mean eventually, like several years – reward you with deep pink flowers.
Some people are fortunate to have both pink and blue on the same or adjacent plants without any coercion. Other gardeners struggle – like me – to convert their blue Mopheads to pink. Go figure.
My Master Gardener friend Penny has the most beautiful deep purple Mopheads. She even shared a plant with me that we named Ginny that reliably bloomed purple in her yard. Three years later, the plant is so blue. Penny says her secret is using cold fireplace ashes on the plants each spring, sprinkling them at the base of the plants liberally. 
When we clean our wood stove for spring, that’s where our ashes go. But it doesn’t seem to be enough, so each spring and again in the fall, I dutifully purchase garden dolomitic lime from my local box retailer that’s labeled for changing soil acidity. After about five years, I’m finally seeing some progress with blues becoming slightly pinker. I have noticed that one of my Mopheads is always dark purple, but it’s planted next to our concrete patio and common sense tells me that it’s absorbing some elements from the nearby concrete.
Mopheads are just about finished for the season for most of us. Now’s the time to deadhead spent blossoms and give the plants a haircut. They bloom on last year’s wood, so the safest time to prune is immediately after flowering.
One year I waited until January and had not a single blossom. I learned my lesson. I’m going out one Saturday this month and pruning. No question. And I’ll be adding more lime this fall, raking it into the soil to give my quest for pink a boost. 
Other hydrangeas 
Annabelles are pretty carefree and can be covered with lovely basketball-sized blossoms. They prefer shade and are not as picky about the PH of the soil. Just keep them well watered. If you prune right after they bloom you may be rewarded with a second less showy flush of blossoms in the fall.
Panicle hydrangeas, which prefer full sun, start with white or light-pink conical blossoms. As they mature, they get slightly larger and turn pinkish. Today’s professional growers have developed a wide variety of cultivars that range from pure white to lime green to deep pink. Look for familiar names like Limelight, Firelight deep pink, and Vanilla Strawberry. They can be pruned any time of year except summer. 
Oak Leaf Hydrangeas are the show for multi-season color. One of the best places I’ve seen showy plantings is Gibbs Gardens in Ball Ground. Planted beneath tree canopies at the edge of wooded areas, their elongated cone-shaped blossoms are prolific starting in June and continuing through summer. In the fall, the oak leaf-shaped foliage changes to reds, oranges, rust, and burgundy. The cinnamon-colored bark provides winter interest as it naturally peels. Oak Leaf is a Georgia native plant, an added reason for planting it in your yard.
A word about browsers 
No, not your computer browsers. I’m talking about deer. All types of hydrangeas are among their favorite foods. The best way to keep deer at bay is to spray them every 10 to 14 days with a proven deer repellent. 
Two brands work for me, using them in rotation – Liquid Fence and Hinder. Both stink, but that’s the point. The smell and the taste deter browsing by deer, but they are not harmful to wildlife. Buy both in concentrates and mix according to package instructions. My 4-gallon backpack sprayer and I have a standing appointment every weekend and so far this year, we’ve kept the deer away from my garden.
Sources for hydrangeas
Locally owned nurseries specialize in selling multiple varieties of plants and they’re a good bet for a wide range of hydrangea cultivars. You can find basic types at box retailers or just order online.

If you have friends with gardens, ask them to share with you, either by air-layering – placing a branch on the ground weighted down with a brick or rock until roots develop, typically six months or so – or by taking cuttings and rooting them in water or moist potting soil. 
The University of Georgia’s Cooperative Extension offers publications about gardening at no charge.  

July 2020 column

I'd rather be blue - blueberries, that is

Things are pretty blue around our house these days, with the prolific output of our dozen or so blueberry bushes. From just 10 days of harvesting beginning in mid-June, Rick and I have picked nearly 55 pounds, our biggest yield ever.
And that only puts us about one-third of the way into the picking season. Our friends are loving the bounty of our harvest and our freezer is bursting at the seems with quarts of luscious berries. We are willingly sharing and some friends even suggest that I set up a stand at a local farmer’s market.
Here’s the secret: feed them at least twice a season and water them deeply once a week. Use a slow-release acidic plant fertilizer, such as Milorganite or Holly-Tone for azaleas, camellias and other acid-loving plants. Read the package instructions for amount and method of application; usually with my mature plants approaching six feet tall, I’ll use about one-half to three-quarters of a cup spread at the drip line. 
Caution: With any granular fertilizer application, do NOT apply to the root/trunk/branch union. Keep fertilizers at least one foot away from the trunks or you will most likely kill your plant. 
Fertilizer burn is not pretty. I had an inexperienced garden helper last spring who literally dumped handfuls of 10-10-10 onto the centers of a prized azalea, my specimen Edgeworthia/Chinese Paper Plant, and a very special Rising Sun Redbud, killing them all within a week. I learned a lesson; if you want to fertilize properly, hire a certified landscape professional, or educate yourself before you begin.
Back to the blues 
Blueberries are the ideal fruit crop for Georgia. in fact, blueberries, now planted on former tobacco fields in South Georgia, have surpassed peaches as the state’s most productive commercial fruit crop. 
They’re easy to grow. The key is having at least two different cultivars of plants to allow for cross pollination. Rabbiteye is the most common variety and it is available in several different cultivars, including Climax, Powderblue, Premier or Brightwell. 
Blueberries are disease-resistant and don’t attract many insects. The plants thrive in full sun but can produce in some shade, through the yield is not as high. 
For pruning and growing advice, check out the free publications online at You’ll find expert guidance for all your garden needs and questions. 
Another blue shout-out. Our mophead hydrangeas are blooming non-stop right now, mostly blue with a couple of shrubs bearing deep violet clusters. Planted on the north side of our home in morning sunlight, the bushes are loaded. Over the past four years, we’ve dumped granulated lime and spent fireplace ashes on them to try and turn them all purple or even pink. Finally, they are on their way to a meaningful shift, but it will be a few more seasons before my color change is complete. 
Last month’s column response
Thanks to two readers who wrote about their own squirrel adventures and solutions. Lori Perdue of Cumming wrote with several tips, including relocating the feeders to a spot that’s protected by her climbing rose bushes. “Seems they don’t like thorny feet on the way up or falling after attempting to jump into said sharp vines. So far so good.”
George Daves sent me ideas for building sheet-metal baffles to mount on the poles. Cone-shaped, mounted below the feeders with the widest part facing the ground, the baffles are fairly easy to make and can be effective. George says he gets the sheet metal from a box retailer and attaches the hand-cut cones to the poles with hose clamps. “I fabricated this cone on my bird feeder pole over four years ago and a squirrel has not been able to get around it since.”
Let’s talk gardening
I love hearing from readers with ideas, questions and feedback. What would you like to see us write about in Curb Appeal? I’m open to suggestions. Email me at

June 2020 column


Squirrels at the feeder: Yikes!

Rats with furry tails that steal food from the mouths of babes – baby birds, that is. Pesky rodents that find their way to bird feeders no matter where you put them, how much money you pay for them or what the manufacturers guarantee. You know who I mean: squirrels.
Aside from deer in the garden, squirrels at the feeder are the bane of my existence – and from what I can tell, many of my gardening and bird-watching friends agree. 
Just last month, national news outlets like the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune reported that sheltering at home has caused explosive growth in birding. Whether people are hanging more feeders and bird houses or they’re safely socially distancing by taking hikes to some of Georgia’s best birding trails, the number of folks letting their lives go to the birds is soaring. 
Audubon Society and Cornell Lab of Ornithology are the go-to expert resources for birders. From sponsoring the Great Backyard Bird Count each February on Presidents’ Day weekend to creating websites and apps, like, the two organizations have cornered the market on birding knowledge. 
You can use these resources to identify birds, track your sightings, plan birding trips close to home and around the globe – once we can all travel again – and find the best locations for seeing rare species, all from the comfort of your living room.
But back to those squirrels. In watching my half-dozen feeders outside my office windows, the nearly 18 regular bird species who come to visit peacefully share the space with squirrels and chipmunks. Truth be told, it’s not the birds I worry about; it’s the piggish rodents that gobble up every last morsel of the black-oil sunflower seeds we diligently replenish each week. 
Here’s the thing: many companies make what they call ‘squirrel-proof’ feeders. Not so. From feeders with perches that slam shut if triggered by anything heavier than an ounce to fancy mechanical ones that spin intruders off the bottom, I’ve tried them all. You know the names: Droll Yankee, Squirrel Buster, Brome, etc.
Baffles, hung from above or mounted on poles from below, don’t work either. A beautiful plexiglass squirrel guard dome installed over a cylindrical feeder didn’t even slow down the squirrels who made their way to the feeders below. They’d tight-rope across the shepherd’s hook hangers and jump across the closest feeder and voila – supper. 
The squirrels must have been going to the gym during shelter-at-home, because they have also found ways to loop their back feet into the holes where the seeds come out, do some ab crunches to retrieve seeds, then hang upside down to eat. Their 8-packs make Zac Efron’s 6-pack look like a feather pillow. 
I tried using bacon grease to make the 3-inch aluminum poles that support our feeders slick. What a mess! The squirrels would use a nearby shrub to get a running start, wrap their arms and legs around the pole and slide down a couple of times. By then the pole wasn’t greased anymore, so they’d message all their friends to come to the feast. All I got was the entertainment of seeing these little critters get their bellies greased.
So, I took pruners into my own hands and cut back the evergreen shrubs under the feeders. Big mistake. Now we’re pulling out all the remnants and replacing them with shorter shrubs. 
An internet search turned up a solution. Squirrels don’t like spicy hot food, but it doesn’t seem to bother the birds. A trip to the Flowery Branch Wild Bird Supply store behind Chick-fil-A and a consultation with the clerk and 10 minutes later I emerged with two large bags of something called “hot chips,” cayenne pepper-coated shelled sunflower seeds. She also suggested that I start with a couple of inches of just the hot chips, then mix some with the black-oil sunflower seeds to fill the balance of the feeder. 
That was last week. Today, it seems like the hot chips have done their job maybe a little too well.

Aside from a couple of cardinals, a chickadee or two and some nuthatches, no one, and I mean no one, has been by to eat. Surely, once the birds discover that the heat won’t hurt them, they’ll be back, but for now, I’m sticking with my plan.
 At least I’ve out-squirrelled the squirrels.

May 2020 column

Gardening: Good for the soul in tough times

If the lines over the past two months at box retailers like Home Depot and Lowe’s are any indication, everyone’s a gardener these days. During the shelter-in-place and social distancing orders, people still found safe ways to be outdoors and stay active. 
As people long to get outside but still stay home, they’re turning to home-improvement projects. Gardening has topped the list, whether they’re growing vegetables or putting in trees, shrubs and flower gardens. 
This global crisis has come as the weather turns milder and spring already means that more people are outdoors. But instead of gathering with friends or traveling, they’re looking to their own landscapes for a safe and productive way to have some sort of activity.

Hands-on activities for the family
Here are some ideas for easy ways to garden while we all manage this challenging time.
Build some raised beds in full sun – The box retailers have pre-cut kits or you can use your building skills to cut and assemble lumber. Most beds should be at least 12 inches deep, filled with a mix of garden soil, composted organic matter, and soil amendments. 
Typically, they’re built a couple of feet wide. Plan the location, dig out a couple of inches of the existing soil if you like, then install the wooden sides. Once you fill them, sprinkle in a general-purpose fertilizer, such as 10-10-10, and till or turn it in. Rake smooth. 
Then you’re ready to plant tomatoes, herbs, eggplant, pepper seedlings and other spring crops. The soil’s not quite warm enough to start seeds directly in the garden until mid-May, when you can sow cucumbers, pole beans and squash directly into the garden. Read the package for spacing when planting seeds and remember that you’ll need to thin them in a couple of weeks, removing the weakest seedlings. 
Try container gardening – Big flower pots and window boxes, especially those made of plastic or light-weight fiberglass, can be fun to plant. Make sure containers have drainage holes. Younger children are thrilled to help with picking out the flowers and digging the holes.
Right now, nurseries and box retailers are filled with many annuals that provide a stunning show all summer. Choose a thriller, a taller plant that’s very showy, a filler that’s a low-grower, and a spiller that will cascade over the sides of the pot. 
Coleus or flowering annual salvias are great thrillers. Just remember to regularly deadhead the spent blossoms and to pinch back the tops of the coleus to encourage branching. Fillers, such as dwarf marigolds, million bells/calibrachoa, and petunias, are good choices. The new wave petunias that trail, sweet potato plants and licorice plants provide the softness of spillers. 
The key to success with raised beds and with container gardening is regular watering. Especially with containers, the soil will dry out more quickly. In the hottest months, they may need a good soaking. If the plants look like they’re wilting, douse them thoroughly.
Stress relief and better health 
“From improving your physical health to taking a break from the stresses of life, getting back to Mother Earth brims with benefits,” says Joe Lamp’l, national television host and creator of He’s a resident of Milton. “People who garden are generally more physically active, plus many gardeners I know seem to just be happier and more centered. Maybe it’s because they are so connected to nature.”
Lamp’l cites an article from Colorado State University’s Cooperative Extension Master Garden Program’s “Benefits of Gardening.” It says families who grow their own vegetables naturally eat more fruits and vegetables. Plus gardening provides exercise, stress reduction and relaxation.
“There’s just something in the soil that has a physiological effect on mental well-being,” Lamp’l says. “For me, it’s about just smelling the earth and the scents of the plants, plus seeing the results of my labors as the plants grow and mature.” 
To learn more about gardening and its benefits, visit There, you can find podcasts, garden tips and free guides. For 11 seasons, Lamp’l has hosted a national television show, “Growing A Greener World,” broadcast on public television stations in all 50 states. Archives and episodes are available at

April 2020 column

Taking the pain out of gardening

Do you want to have a productive vegetable patch without constantly weeding? Is your gardening space limited by too much shade? Then straw-bale gardening is for you. It’s simple and has great benefits. It’s like starting with brand-new growing medium, so you won’t have weeds, diseases or insects. 
Here’s how: Start with large compact bales of wheat straw and place them on landscape fabric in a location that gets at least six hours of direct sunlight each day. Place them in rows with at least 6 feet between each row.
Have a water source nearby; you’ll be watering frequently. Evenly apply about a half-cup of inexpensive fertilizer, such as 10-10-10 or one that has a high first number, to each bale and water it thoroughly until water runs out of the bottom. 
Over the next 10 to 14 days soak the bales every day. Every couple of days add more fertilizer before watering to create a nutrient-rich planting medium. Much like making compost, bacteria and microbes decompose the straw, breaking it down and creating warmth. By the time you’ve conditioned the bales, the straw biologically becomes excellent soil that will support plant growth.
Get growing
Start with seedlings, purchased at a local nursery or box retailer. Before planting check the internal temperature of the bales to make sure it’s no higher than 105 degrees by inserting a kitchen meat thermometer about 6 inches deep. If the temperature is too high, the seedlings’ tender roots may be damaged. Adding more water will bring down the temperature.
Dig holes with a trowel slightly larger than the size of the pot and insert the root ball. Place plants at the recommended distance apart. When the bale is fully planted, water well. If you need to add soil, use sterilized potting mix, not soil from the garden. Bagged potting soil should be weed- and disease-free. 
The most popular crops are tomatoes, squash and peppers, but if you install a trellis on each bale, you can grow vine vegetables such as green beans, peas and cucumbers. Stake or secure the tomatoes as you do in an in-ground garden.
Getting a good crop 
The key is keeping the bales hydrated, so check them every day to ensure the interior isn’t too dry. Stick your hand into the bale about 6 inches to make sure it’s moist.  Regular watering also keeps the bales’ internal temperature from getting too high, which is possible as the bales continue to break down. Continue to fertilize regularly and stake or trellis plants that tend to wander.
Consider planting some zinnias and marigolds at the ends of each bale to help attract pollinators, such as butterflies and bees. This will also help with your crop production. 
No more bending 
Straw-bale gardening, by its very nature, puts your plants farther off the ground, making it easy to inspect them for errant insects or disease. It also makes it simpler to harvest your crops because you won’t need to bend down to pick.
Take a large basket with you to the garden as you start to harvest. You’ll need it to carry your fresh-grown vegetables into the kitchen.
For more information about straw-bale gardening, check out books by the technique’s “inventor,” Joel Karsten. His “Straw Bale Gardens Complete” and “Straw Bale Solutions” provide step-by-step guidance as well as problem-solving recommendations for healthy crops. Visit his website at
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